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Empire Earth: Units FAQ №1 (ENG)

EMPIRE EARTH FAQ
----------------
MADE BY: DANIEL WEIR (d_weir_efc@yahoo.co.uk)
Thanks to www.EmpireEarth.com for some of the information that I used
and thanks to Sierra for making such a great RTS game.


AIRCRAFT
--------

Boeing Chinook
--------------
Built: 1950's
Wingspan: N/A
Max Speed: N/A
Max Range: N/A
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The Boeing CH-47 "Chinook" is a twin-turbine, tandem-
rotor transport helicopter approximately 100 feet in length from rotor
tip to rotor tip. It has a maximum payload of about 25,000 pounds and
can accommodate over 3-dozen troops. From its development in the late
1950's, it has undergone several updates and is expected to remain in
use well into the 21st Century.


F-117A Nighthawk
----------------
Built: June, 1981
Wingspan: 43 feet, 4 inches
Max Speed: Mach 1
Max Range: 1,100 miles
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: After tests in the 1970's demonstrated the feasibility of
stealth technology, Lockheed's famed "Skunk Works" division was awarded
the contract to produce stealth fighters in 1978. The result was the F-
117A "Nighthawk," which was first flown in 1981 and achieved
operational readiness in 1983.

The F-177A was the first combat-ready aircraft built with so-called
"stealth" technology. In addition to its use of radar-absorbing
materials, the unique shape of the F-117A - with its many carefully-
angled flat surfaces - reflects incoming radar energy in harmless
directions. Additionally, all armaments are housed internally to
further reduce the fighter's radar signature. So as to lessen its
vulnerability to heat-seeking missiles, the F-117A is not equipped with
afterburner engines. Although this limits the Nighthawk to subsonic
speeds, the plane's stealthy characteristics more than make up for the
trade-off.

The F-117A made its combat debut in Panama in 1989, and went on to
perform spectacularly during the Gulf War. The roughly 40 Nighthawks
that took part in Operation Desert Storm flew more than 1,200 combat
sorties and delivered 2,000 tons of ordnance. Not a single F-117A was
lost in the war - in fact, not one was even fired upon. Stealth
Fighters also took part in the NATO-led air campaign over Yugoslavia in
1999. One F-117A was lost during the campaign, but the pilot was
rescued unharmed.


Vought F4U-1 Corsair
--------------------
Built: 1940
Wingspan: 41 feet
Max Speed: 417mph
Max Range: 1,015 miles
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The F4U Corsair was used extensively by the US Navy and
the US Marines in the Pacific Theater during WWII. Though designed to
be a carrier-based fighter/bomber, in practice the Corsair proved to be
difficult to land on a carrier due to its poor forward visibility,
common low-speed stalls, and tendency to bounce on the runway. Early
production models were all restricted to land-based use until these
problems were addressed.

The most distinctive feature of the F4U were its "inverted gull wings,"
which resemble a "W" when seen head-on. The wing design was adopted to
accommodate the plane's powerful Pratt & Whitney engine, which required
a large propeller to convert all of the engine's more than 2,000 horse
power into forward thrust. The landing gear attached to the lowest
portion of each wing, thus providing the ground clearance needed for
the propeller while avoiding the need for long, more-fragile landing
gear. Additional benefits to the wing design included reduced air drag
and a lower clearance when the wings were folded up, which made the
Corsair easier to store on a carrier.

The Corsair was known to the Japanese as "Whistling Death" due to the
sound it made in a dive. Overall, the Corsair is credited with downing
more than 2,000 enemy aircraft while only about 500 Corsairs were lost
to enemy fire. The plane also saw service during the Korean War. By
1952, when production of the Corsair was finally halted, more than
12,500 planes had been built. Some remained in active use in South
American armed forces into the early 1960's.


Heinkel HE-111
--------------
Built: 1935
Wingspan: 72 feet, 2 inches
Max Speed: 250mph
Max Range: 1,200 miles
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: Germany developed the Heinkel He 111 in the mid-1930s
with two purposes in mind. It was ostensibly to be used as a civil
airliner and mail carrier, thus circumventing the limitations placed on
Germany's rearmament after WWI. But it was always meant to function as
a medium bomber as well. In addition to bombs, some He 111s were armed
with torpedoes and late models were even converted to launch V-1 "Buzz
Bombs" after the V-1 launch facilities in Germany had been either
destroyed or captured. The He 111 was first used in combat in 1936
during the Spanish Civil War. Heinkel bombers became part of the
infamous "Condor Legion," a special part of the Luftwaffe sent by
Germany to aid General Franco's Nationalist forces. The bomber
performed well, able to carry a large payload while remaining fast
enough to evade most enemy fighters of the time. In fact, early in its
career, the He 111 was often flown without a fighter escort. During the
Battle of Britain (1940) in WWII, however, the He 111 began to show
signs of deficiency. The British Spitfire and Hurricane fighters took
their toll on the lightly armed bombers, especially during daytime
raids. The Luftwaffe quickly realized that fighter escorts for the He
111 had become necessary. Germany continued to produce the He 111 until
1944, due mostly to the fact that it had no new bomber designs to
replace it. By then, the He 111's two-engine design, comparatively
small payload and low speed, and light armaments and armor had rendered
it all but obsolete. The Germans built a total of over 7,300 He 111s,
some of which were used by Spain (with new engines) until the 1960's.
Spain even built its own version of the bomber called the CASA 2111.


Lockheed P-38 Lightning
-----------------------
Built: 1939
Wingspan: 52 feet
Max Speed: 415mph
Max Range: 2,600 miles
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The first truly modern aircraft for the US Army Air Force
in WWII, the P-38 "Lightning" saw action in both the European and
Pacific theaters. The P-38 was noteworthy for many reasons. Its two-
engine, twin-tailboom design was a departure from the traditional
single-prop fighters of the time. It was the first modern fighter to be
made largely from stainless steel and to use a tricycle-style landing
gear. It was also the first fighter to exceed speeds of 400 mph.
Historically, the P-38 was the first USAAF fighter to shoot down a
German aircraft, the first fighter to escort bombers all the way to
Berlin, and it destroyed more Japanese aircraft than any other American
fighter. It was also the only US fighter to be produced throughout
America's involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day - though
it only appeared in numbers after 1942. In total, just over 10,000 P-
38's were built. The P-38 was such an advanced aircraft for its time
that it could approach the speed of sound in terminal velocity dives.
Unfortunately, the designers and pilots of the Lightning were not yet
experienced with the stresses such speeds could put on a plane... or a
person. As a result, there were several fatal crashes early in the P-
38's career when pilots tried and failed to pull out of such dives.
This fact earned the P-38 the reputation of being dangerous to fly.
Only later, when the so-called sound barrier was studied in more
detail, did scientists realize that all aircraft had difficulties at
such speeds. For the P-38, the problem was traced to a shock wave that
formed over the wings and prevented the plane's control surfaces from
operating properly. The addition of a small electric motor, which could
alter the wings' shape and, thus, the flow of air over them, mostly
corrected the problem in later models.

Historic Note: German pilots nicknamed the P38 Lightning the "Fork
Tail Devil" due to its devastating fire power and speed.


Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
----------------------
Built: 1959
Wingspan: 62 feet
Max Speed: 166mph
Max Range: 2,600 miles
Unit Type: Aircraft
Epoch: Atomic
Description: In the 1950's, the US Navy was looking to add to its
ranks an all-weather Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopter that was
versatile enough to be used in other roles. They contracted with
Sikorsky Aircraft and the result, in 1959, was the SH-3 Sea King.
Production models became available in 1961. The Sea King's crew
consists of two pilots and two sonar operators, and it carries
torpedoes and depth charges. It can operate from land or the deck of a
support ship, ready to search out and destroy enemy submarines. Some
production models were outfitted for mine-countermeasures, logistical
operations, search and rescue missions, or even the emergency
evacuation and transportation of VIPs in Washington, including the
President of the US. During the 1990's, the Sea King was gradually
replaced in ASW operations by the SH-60 Sea Hawk. The remaining Sea
Kings were reconfigured into search and rescue helicopters and many are
still in use in the US, Canada, and other countries.


AH-64 Apache
------------
First Flight: 1975
Max Speed: 176 mph (level flight)
Rotor Diameter: 48 ft
Overall Length: 58 ft
Max Range: about 400 miles (w/o external fuel tanks)
Basic Armament: 30 mm cannon; 16 Hellfire missiles or 76 70 mm rockets
or a combination of both
Gross Weight: 15,000 lbs
Crew: 2

Description: Near the end of the Vietnam War, the US Army was in need
of a new attack helicopter to replace the AH-1G HueyCobra. McDonnell
Douglas (now part of Boeing) produced a prototype - the YAH-64 - in
1975 and was awarded the development contract in 1976. Production of
the AH-64A Apache began in 1983. Over 900 AH-64A Apaches were delivered
to both the US and international customers by 1997 before production
switched over to the updated AH-64D and the Apache Longbow.

Sophisticated weapons, navigation and target acquisition systems, and
night vision technology made the Apache the most advanced, combat-
tested attack helicopter of the 1990's. It was primarily designed for
anti-tank operations, but was effective against other ground vehicles
and troop formations as well. The AH-64A flew its first combat
missions in 1989 during the US action in Panama. In 1991, Apache
helicopters played a major role in Operation Desert Strom, where they
are credited with destroying or disabling more than 500 tanks plus
hundreds of other vehicles. With updated equipment, including the
addition of the Longbow fire control radar, the Apache will remain the
most advanced attack helicopter well into the new millennium.


B-2 Stealth Bomber
------------------
First Flight: July, 1989
Wingspan: 172 feet
Max Speed: High subsonic
Max Range: Over 6,000 nautical miles; 10,000 nm with one mid-air
refueling
Gross Weight: 336,000 lbs., normal take-off weight
Crew: 2

Description: The B-2 "Spirit" is a strategic, long-range heavy bomber
that was unveiled to the public in 1988. Its primary - though by no
means only - role is to penetrate deep into enemy territory to strike
specific targets with a variety of air-to-surface weapons.

The B-2 is best known for it low-observability or "stealth"
characteristics. To achieve its tiny radar signature, which is roughly
the size of a bird's signature, the B-2 was designed with no right
angles. All its exposed surfaces are curved and covered with special
paint to help scatter radar signals. The plane is also constructed of
graphite instead of metal to help absorb radar emissions. Additionally,
the B-2 cools its exhaust to reduce the threat presented by heat-
seeking missiles and the bomber's overall design allows it to operate
more quietly than conventional aircraft.

For navigation and targeting, the stealth bomber relies on the Global
Positioning System (GPS), a network of a dozen orbiting satellites that
can pinpoint a location anywhere on the earth in any kind of weather.
Using the GPS, the B-2 "Spirit" can strike to within 20 feet of its
assigned target. Moreover, the Spirit's refueled range allows it to
travel any place on earth.

The B-2 program began in the late 1970's, but the ideas for both
stealth aircraft and so-called "flying wings" had been around for more
than 35 years prior to that. The YB-49 bomber, designed by Jack
Northrop in the 1940's, had a flying wing design, but though a working
prototype was built, the plane never went into production. With the
advent of computer "fly-by-wire" technology and new construction
materials, the B-2 became a reality. Originally, 132 aircraft were
ordered from the contractor, Northrop Grumman. But factors such as cost
(each plane costs about 1.3 billion US dollars) and the end of the Cold
War led the US Government to reduce the order to 21.

Today, all operational B-2 bombers are stationed at Whiteman AFB in
Missouri. The B-2 made its combat debut over Yugoslavia in the March,
1999, NATO-led air campaign. Afterwards, Pentagon officials and
military experts testified to Congress that the plane performed
extremely well.


Albatros D.V
------------
First Flight: 1917
Wingspan: 29 ft. 8 in.
Max Speed: 116 mph
Max Range: About 1,000 miles
Basic Armament: 2 Spandau light machine guns
Gross Weight: 2060 lbs
Crew: 1

Description: The Albatros D-series was a WWI German fighter named
after the company that produced them. The first Albatros, the D.I, used
plywood to cover the fuselage at a time when many airplanes were
covered with stretched fabric. Plywood greatly increased the rigidity
of the Albatros as compared to other contemporary aircraft. The D.I
also put the propeller in front of the plane rather than behind. This
"tractor" design proved more efficient than the "pusher" designs being
used by Britain and was instrumental in reestablishing German air
superiority in 1917. The pusher design was soon thereafter abandoned by
all aircraft-producing nations. Design changes on subsequent models of
the Albatros improved stability, armament, and visibility. However, the
wings on all models before the D.Va variant were prone to crack in
flight, especially under the stresses of a steep dive. This design
defect caused numerous fatal crashes. Even Manfred von Richtofen, the
infamous Red Baron, had the lower wing of his D.III crack in flight,
though he managed to land safely. The D.V and D.Va variant were the
last versions of the Albatros produced during the war. Overall, Germany
produced more than 3,000 of the D-series fighters.


F-96 "Talon" Joint Strike Fighter
---------------------------------
First Flight: 2031
Wingspan: 35 feet
Max Speed: Mach 2.65 (at high altitude)
Max Range: 2,000 nautical miles; unlimited with air refueling
Basic Armament: Various interchangeable air-to-air and air-to-ground
weapons; no fixed weapons
Weight: 35,800 lbs (max take-off)
Crew: 1 pilot

Description: The F-96 "Talon" was the first generation of new joint
strike fighters designed to meet the special needs of air combat in the
21st Century. Development of the F-96 began in 2024 as it became clear
to the US Air Force that proven Post-Cold War air combat methods and
weaponry were beginning to change. To maintain supremacy in this new
era, a fighter with a powerful, versatile, and yet simple
pilot/aircraft interface was needed. After several design revisions,
the first prototype Talon took off in 2031. Full production began two
years later.

As soon as the F-96 was battle-ready, it was superior to anything else
then in the air. Constructed of advanced composite materials, the
strongest and lightest yet developed, the F-96 weighed in at just under
20,000 pounds when empty. The powerful yet fuel efficient Pratt &
Whitney engine provided enough thrust to push the plane to Mach 2.65 at
altitudes greater then 40,000 feet. The materials and the plane's
curved surfaces also made the F-96 virtually invisible to radar,
through new tracking technologies intended to replace radar were
already well into development at that time. To counter these
anticipated threats, the Talon sported a suite of state-of-the-art
electronics packages.

A next-generation avionics system went into the F-96. With it, the
Talon could track 100 separate targets, evaluate the threat posed by
each, and feed the information to the pilot by both voice and an
advanced heads-up display (HUD). The plane could also take many
defensive actions by itself, such as dispensing chaff and transmitting
a variety of electronic counter measures (ECM) to confuse incoming
missiles and jam ground tracking systems.

Most noteworthy was the inclusion of a technologically advanced
pilot/aircraft interface, which had been developed over the previous
30+ years. Pilots underwent an intensive 3-month special training
program, in addition to traditional instruction, to learn to control
many of the plane's systems and functions via biofeedback. Once
trained, pilots could literally "think" to the plane what they wanted
it to do. For redundancy purposes, these functions were also accessible
via controls on the stick in the original production model. But the
system proved sound and later versions removed the unnecessary stick
controls. The F-96 Talon was a highly successful aircraft and, with
updates, remained in active service for over 40 years.

BUILDINGS
---------

Capitol
-------
Epoch: All
Description: As the seat of government and successor to the simpler
Town Center, the Capitol is the heart of a civilization. Capitols
instill a high sense of morale to those in their presence and even
compel citizens to work harder for the good of society. Defensive and
economic benefits make Capitols a valuable investment in Empire Earth.

House
-----
Epoch: Middle
Description: Houses that are built around capitols increase the morale
effect of the capitol even further. They do not hold your population
and cannot increase it. They are good when placed around guard towers
and docks as they give them an extra defense.

Hospital
--------
Epoch: Industrial
Description: The hospital is where healing takes place. Healing, at
first, was a matter for spiritual leaders and sacred sites. Early
hospitals were essentially places where a patient might receive divine
help. In Greece and elsewhere, for example, a ritual known as
incubation was used in which illness was said to be cured by sleeping
in a holy place. Bathing in supposedly curative waters was also thought
to be beneficial and this practice may have been the origin of modern
health spas. Later Greek doctors - Hippocrates being the most famous -
were instrumental in pushing the science of medicine forward. Roman
hospitals, based largely on Greek medicine, were first established
around 100 BC to treat injured and ill soldiers. The rise of
Christianity helped to transform hospitals into the care facilities we
know today. In the 6th Century AD, the Hotel-Dieu of Lyon opened. It
had a large hall lined with beds and emphasized treating the patient,
not just the ailment. Monastic infirmaries in Europe and elsewhere
cared for monks and outsiders alike. At the end of the Middle Ages,
civil authorities increasingly began to take on the responsibilities of
healthcare. By the turn of the 16th Century, England alone reportedly
had more than 200 secular hospitals to care for its people.


Archery Range
-------------
Epoch: Middle
Description: At the archery range players can train archery units. The
archery range changes to tank factory in the Atomic Age. The use of the
bow goes back at least 30,000 years, as clear depictions of bow-
wielding hunters have been found in cave paintings from that time. Bows
evolved into several distinct varieties, including the composite bow,
the crossbow, and the long bow, all of which had their advantages and
disadvantages in battle. Crossbows were better at close range and
required less skill to use, while the longbow, though a difficult
weapon to master, could fire light arrows 500 yards. Some archers - the
Mongols of the 13th Century, for instance - even took to horse back,
which provided them greater speed though diminished their aim while
riding. To perform their best, archers, perhaps more than any other
early soldier, needed training and practice. Some archers, such as
English longbow men, trained from early age to become proficient with
their weapon. Target shooting and drilling at an archery range helped
to get archers into battle-ready condition. Archery ranges also
provided a convenient storage facility for arrows and other equipment.


Munitions Factory
-----------------
Epoch: Atomic
Description: At the munitions factory shells are made for high powered
artillery weapons and other kinds of ammunition are also produced here.
Modern day conflicts have involved the use of heavy artillery. A
munitions factory is where the shells for the artillery pieces are
made. In the atomic age these factories were constantly being bombarded
with all kinds of offense. This was due to the fact that each side
knew these factories produced the deadly weapons used in killing their
soldiers. During World War II daily bombing raids were used by the
Allies to try and crush the German war machine. British bombers would
bomb German munitions factory during night and the Americans would bomb
them during the day.


Naval Yard
----------
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The naval yard is where ships are produced, repaired, and
resupplied. Today's navies have naval yards where they build, repair,
and supply their arsenal. Most naval yards include docks, dry docks,
and storage facilities. They are the heart and soul of any atomic age
navy. These are usually prime targets for any army to destroy.


Tank Factory
------------
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The tank factory is where mobile artillery weapons known
as tanks are made. This is an upgrade from the archery range.

Tanks are used by just about every army today. Their armor hauled
exteriors, mobility, and high fire power have made them a menace to the
infantryman. The tank began to appear on battle fields during World
War I. At first they were slow cumbersome vehicles but in the years to
come they became more advanced. During World War II nothing was more
feared than the German Panzer tank.


Dock
----
Epoch: Atomic
Description: Docks are where ships are moored near land.
The dock as always been an important part of any civilization. It
allows for deep water ships to be moored next to land. This makes it
easier for ships to be loaded with passengers, cargo, or weaponry. In
Empire Earth the dock goes through improvements through the ages. It
first becomes available in the first epoch. During the first epoch it
is the place where ships are built.


Cannon Factory
--------------
Epoch: Industrial
Description: The cannon factory is where cannons are made during the
industrial age. During the industrial age new gun powder weapons showed
up on battle front. These new weapons were known as cannons. Usually
they were cast in molds in special foundries. A simple name for these
foundries is a cannon factory.


Temple
------
Epoch: Paleolithic
Description: The is where priests pray to their gods and heal units.
Ever since people thought up religion they needed a place to gather and
worship their god or gods. That was the temple. Later on the temple
becomes the church.


Siege Workshop
--------------
Epoch: Bronze
Description: The siege workshop is where siege weapons are
constructed. Early high powered artillery weapons were known as siege
weapons. They were called this because they were used to siege walled
cities, castles, and forts. The siege workshop later becomes the
cannon factory.


Mech Factory
------------
Epoch: Late Information Age, Nano Age
Description: Automated mechanized weapons (or Mechs) were introduced
in the late 21st Century primarily to keep human beings out of harms
way. For many years, few but the most devoted Tech Sergeants much cared
if a Mech came back from a dangerous mission or not. The precursors to
Mechs were small robots - remotely operated - which were used for
reconnaissance and disposing of unexploded ordnance. Later, larger
machines were lightly armed and sent into hostile areas to gather
intelligence for their operators. The first truly autonomous Mechs
appeared in the second half of the 21st Century once neural nets and
processing power became sufficiently advanced to provide machines with
rudimentary intelligence. In succeeding decades, continued advances in
computers, materials, propulsion, and weapon systems lead to an
explosion of Mech designs. Anti-infantry Mechs were created
specifically to kill human soldiers. Airborne Mechs provided air
support and recon. A small, stealthy Mech codenamed "Poseidon" was
invented to capture other Mechs by introducing an invasive program into
the target. As a result, later Mech designs incorporated anti-virus
countermeasures in an effort to fend off such attacks. By the turn of
the 22nd Century Mechs were standard equipment in all modern armies and
Mech production facilities were common around the world. In addition to
research & development and the actual production of Mechs, these
facilities literally trained Mechs to fight using techniques not unlike
those used to train humans. Over time, many people came to think of
Mechs as sentient entities rather than disposable military hardware.

LAND UNITS
----------

Citizen
-------
Description: From its ancient Greek origins, the concept of
citizenship has evolved over time. Yet one fact is true now as then:
every civilization owes its very existence to the tireless efforts of
its citizens. In Empire Earth, Citizens gather natural resources,
construct and repair buildings, and transform Settlements into Town
Centers and Capitols.


Knight
------
Description: Mounted Knights were strong, well trained, and despotes
their heavy armor, fast. Foot solders, unless organized into cohesive
groups were at the mercy of charging knights. The advent of pikes, and
later firearms ultimately ended the knight's battlefield supremacy.
Knights make short work of swordsman in Empire Earth.


Bronze Cannon
-------------
Description: Cannon were often categorized by the weight of the
cannonball they fired. This, a 12-pounder fired a 12-pound cannonball.
Different kinds of shot, including explosive rounds or grapeshot, could
be used depending on the target. The Bronze Cannon in Empire Earth is a
12-pounder, effective against massed infantry formations.


Arquebus
--------
Description: The development of the trigger-activated matchlock and
shoulder-braced gunstock culminated in the arquebus, the most advanced
small arm of the 15th Century. Thought their range and accuracy were
inferior to the archers of their day, Arquebusiers started the steady
march to modern warfare. The Arquebus is the earliest in the line of
Empire Earth's gun infantry.


A7V Sturmpanzerwagen
--------------------
Built: 1917
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 15kph
Max Range: 80km
Unit Type: Vehicle
Epoch: Atomic
Description: On November, 1917, 474 British tanks achieved a major
breakthrough against the Germans at the Battle of Cambrai. Though the
Germans eventually drove the British back, tanks had demonstrated their
potential in battle. Following this British victory, the Germans
recognized there was a growing gap on the battlefield. Though the
German War Ministry continued to express confidence in their troops'
ability to deal with the new English weapon, they secretly gave the go
ahead to contractors to develop a tank for Germany. The result, in late
1917, was the A7V Sturmpanzerwagen. The A7V designation was used to
maintain secrecy; in German, it stood for "War Department General
Division 7 Traffic Section." It was well armored and outfitted with one
forward-facing 5.7 cm cannon and six Maxim MG08 machine guns, which
covered the sides and rear of the tank. Only about 20 A7Vs were built
due to material shortages during the war, not to mention the overall
low priority given to the project. The new German tanks saw their first
action at St. Quentin in March, 1918. Five A7Vs were set to take part
in the offensive, but three had mechanical problems before the battle.
The two remaining A7Vs, along with a few captured British Mark IV
tanks, carried the day. A month later, the first tank versus tank
battle took place at Villers-Bretonneux. The A7Vs fought well against
the British Mark IV's, but this was largely due the their much thicker
armor. Overall, the Mark IV was a better tank and the British crews had
more combat experience. Several Mark IVs were destroyed or
incapacitated during the battle, but many more A7Vs broke down or were
captured. The A7V was prone to breakdowns and suffered from a number of
other problem s, including: low ground clearance, poor trench-crossing
ability, poor climbing ability, and underpowered engines. Between the
front cannon and the first side-mounted machine guns was a gap in the
A7V's field of fire. Drivers of the A7V would drive in a zigzag pattern
to keep enemies from exploiting this weakness.


M4 Sherman
----------
Built: 1941
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 38kph
Max Range: 160km
Unit Type: Vehicle
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The M4 "Sherman" medium-tank was the main American battle
tank of World War II. It was also used by Britain, Russia, and other
Allies. The M4 began production in 1941 and they were still in use at
the end of the war. While in command of the 3rd Army, General George
Patton used Sherman tanks to great effect during his 1944 dash across
Europe. Although the Sherman was less powerful than its German
counterparts (though later versions were faster and equipped with a
larger cannon), it made up for its shortcomings by being available in
great numbers. By converting automobile factories to manufacture tanks,
the US pushed the production of Shermans up to 2,000 per month. Over
49,000 Sherman tanks were built during the war - more than all the
tanks produced by Germany over the same time period. The Sherman was
also a very reliable tank and rarely broke down in combat.


Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank
--------------------------
Built: 1979
Weight: 30 tons
Max Speed: 45 mph
Max Range: About 350 miles
Weapons Armament: 120 mm main gun, two 7.62 mm machine guns
Crew: 4
Unit Type: Vehicle
Description: The Leopard 2 program began back in the 1960s. The US and
West Germany were jointly developing a new main battle tank, known as
the MBT/KPz-70 project. The agreement between the two countries
stipulated that no separate national tank program would exist in either
country during the joint project, though Germany was already developing
the Leopard 1. When the Leopard 1 entered service in 1965, a contract
was awarded in Germany to experiment with bringing the Leopard 1 up to
the standard drafted for the MBT/KPz-70. When the US-German program was
ended in the late 60s without a prototype, the Germans decided to
continue with their own upgrade project. (The Americans went on to
build the M1.)
A new main gun, engine, multi-layer armor, and many other improvements
went into the design of the Leopard 2. An improved fire control system
and gun stabilizers allowed the main gun to fire while the tank was in
motion. Water-tight construction let the Leopard 2 wade to a depth of
1.2 meters (about 4 feet) without any special preparation, but with
snorkels and other gear added the tank could be fully submerged.
Maintenance needs were kept to a minimum - even a complete engine
replacement would take only 30 minutes. The first Leopard 2 tanks were
delivered in 1979, and many other countries, including Canada,
Switzerland, Spain, and the Netherlands, purchased the Leopard 2.
Modernized models are still being produced today.


A-17 "SkyWatcher"
-----------------
Built: 2017-2029
Weight: 8,800 lbs
Max Speed: 50 mph (level ground)
Max Range: 325 miles
Weapons Armament: Three missile tubes; STARK guided missiles
Crew: 2
Description: The self-propelled AA-17, known in the field as the
"SkyWatcher," was among the last anti-air missile defense systems to be
built before the advent of high-energy weapons. Armed with long-range
STARK (Surface-To-Air Retribution rocKet) guided missiles, the AA-17
was highly effective in its anti-air role. The STARK guided missile was
originally designed for anti-aircraft cruisers, but was successfully
adapted for use with the AA-17. The STARK's acronymic name was adopted
in honor of the USS Stark, which had been tragically attacked by Iraqi
aircraft in 1987, resulting in the deaths of 37 US sailors.
The SkyWatcher's three-tracked design gave it remarkable stability and
allowed it to cross rough terrain with ease. Its superior off-road
performance and operational radius meant the SkyWatcher could be
deployed to forward installations, field bases, and other remote
strategic locations. State-of-the-art active and passive target
acquisition systems allowed the AA-17 to find and track multiple
targets simultaneously while keeping its own emitted signals to a
minimum. The AA-17 was constructed from radar-absorbing composite
materials, borrowed from the aerospace industry, which further reduced
its vulnerability. These stealthy features, coupled with its mobility,
made the AA-17 highly effective at evading air-to-ground retaliation.
The SkyWatcher also featured an innovative modular design, allowing
outdated components to be easily replaced with newer ones and making
field improvements to the system a simple matter.


M16 Antiaircraft Half-Track
---------------------------
Built: 1942-1943
Weight: 19,800 lbs
Max Speed: 45 mph
Max Range: 215 miles
Weapons Armament: Four .50 caliber machine guns
Crew: 4
Description: The M16 half-track was a lightly armored antiaircraft
vehicle that could fire more than 400 rounds per minute from its quad-
mounted .50 caliber machine guns. Its fire rate, along with the guns'
360-degree turn radius, quick turn rate, and 7200 yard range, made the
M16 a formidable antiaircraft weapon. The M16 was built on the chassis
of the M3 personnel carrier and performed well both on and off road.
M16s were used primarily for protecting infantry and tank columns from
strafing enemy fighters. They saw action in both the Pacific and
European theaters during WWII and in the Korean War.


Trebuchet
---------
Description: First built in Asia, the ultimate siege engine of the
Middle Ages was the trebuchet. Trebuchets used a counterweight to
generate a force that could hurl a 300 pound projectile over 300
hundred yards. Some of these machines were enormous, with
counterweights in excess of 10 tons. Once properly aimed they could
make short work of any wall. There is evidence that some trebuchets
were fitted with wheels for mobility. But modern experiments have shown
that the wheels also provided an extra benefit - they helped to control
the tremendous recoil of the weapon.


Siege Tower
-----------
Description: Siege towers are mobile wooden structures deigned to
protect warriors as they are transported up to, and over, and enemy's
walls. Some in antiquity were so enormous that thousands of men were
required to move them. Use Siege Towers in Empire Earth to storm an
enemy's walls.


Bison Main Battle Tank
----------------------
Built: 2105-2112
Weight: 54 Tons
Max Speed: 62 mph (level ground)
Operating Radius: Unlimited
Armament: 2 laser canons (primary), two 7.62 mm machine guns
(secondary)
Armor: Focused Energy Dissipaters (FEDs) over conventional armor
Crew: 2 or 3
Description: By the dawn of the 22nd Century, unmanned weapon systems
were getting increasingly smarter and more sophisticated. But the cost
of developing and deploying an army of intelligent machines was beyond
the budgets of many nations. Additionally, some military circles still
put their confidence in the adaptability, if not outright superiority,
of humans on the battlefield. There was therefore a market for cheap
yet effective modern weapons that were designed to be operated by human
soldiers.
One of the most successful human-operated weapons of this time period
was the Bison Main Battle Tank. The Bison, developed by Armaments
International, Inc. to appeal this specific arms market, traced its
roots all the way back to the American M1A1. After the US had
discontinued production of its last version of the M1 in 2032,
Armaments International, just recently formed at that time, purchased
the outdated tanks and began their own modification program. The Bison
was actually designed around the modified chassis of the M1's last
production model.
The Bison, like most weapon systems of the era, was powered by
inexpensive yet powerful fusion batteries - tiny self-contained fusion
power plants that could survive in tact even if the tank itself were
utterly destroyed. The batteries allowed the tank to run almost
indefinitely without refueling. Separate reactors powered the tanks two
main guns. Due to significant recharge times between shots, the
designers adopted the dual main gun configuration to provide an
acceptable rate of fire.
Modernization of the weapons and other key systems allowed the crew of
the Bison to be reduced to two: a driver and a gunner. A tank commander
could ride in the tank if necessary, but he or she usually directed the
tank via a secure aud/vid link from a centralized tactical command
center, which accommodated all the tank commanders in a battalion. This
configuration put one less person per tank at risk while simultaneously
increasing battle effectiveness through improved coordination of
forces.


Specialized Mechs
-----------------
Description: Machine intelligence continued to be refined throughout
the late 21st and 22nd Centuries. Mechs became smarter, and the
responsibilities with which they were entrusted increased accordingly.
Large numbers were constructed as the Mech revolution reached its
stride.
But not all Mechs were mass produced in factories, destined to fill out
the ranks of one army or another like so many pawns. Some were
specially created to fill distinct roles on the battlefield, supporting
or augmenting the more-standard troops. And a few were designed and
built to be one of a kind - unique, individual entities who came to
possess their own personalities, opinions... and passions.


Laser Infantry
--------------
Description: Laser Infantry formed the core of all national armies in
the mid-twenty-first century. Though their mobility, versatility, and
firepower made them ideal for many combat situations, these armies were
the last to rely so heavily on human combatants. In Empire Earth, Laser
Infantry are the last in the upgrade line that started with the
primitive arquebus.


Raptor
------
Description: Developed in the 2120s, the Raptor is armed with a long-
range pulse cannon, which, in addition to explosive damage, creates an
electrically-charged field that reduces a target's will to fight.
Though completely autonomous, the Raptor requires close-range defensive
support. In Empire Earth use the Raptor for strategic bombardment of
enemy troop positions.

SEA UNITS
---------

War Raft
--------
Description: Tens of thousands of years ago, seaworthy watercraft
carried ancient peoples to remote islands. When necessary, there early
rafts could be used to fight off on the open water. War Rafts in Empire
Earth are proficient at sinking rival fishing boats.


Agincourt
---------
Launched: 1862
Displacement: 10,800 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 14.8 knots
Length: 407 feet
Unit Type: Naval
Epoch: Industrial
Description: The Agincourt was a steam-powered British battleship that
was among the last warships built with sails, which were used to
supplement the steam engines on long voyages. Her four 9-inch and
twenty-four 7-inch rifled guns were arranged in a long, armored battery
- one of the last times such a gun configuration was used as rotating
gun turrets were about to come into widespread use. Originally fitted
with muzzle-loading guns, she was converted to breach-loading weapons
later in the 1860's. The Agincourt survived well into the 20th Century,
and was finally broken up in 1960.


Bismark
-------
Launched: Feb., 1939
Displacement: Approx. 51,000 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 30 knots
Length: 823' 6"
Complement: 2,065
Unit Type: Naval
Epoch: Atomic
Description: The sinking of the German battleship Bismarck is one of
the best known naval stories of the war in the Atlantic. Sent by the
Germans to harass allied shipping in the North Atlantic, it was spotted
off the coat of Norway by a British plane on May 18, 1941. The British
immediately dispatched ships to intercept the Bismarck, including the
H.M.S. Prince of Wales and, the pride of the Royal Navy, the H.M.S.
Hood. The British force caught up to Bismarck near Iceland on May 24.
In the ensuing battle, the Prince of Wales sustained heavy damage and
the Hood was sunk with a loss of 1,416 men - all but 3 of her entire
compliment. The Bismarck escaped with only light damage.
More British ships arrived on the scene, including the aircraft carrier
Victorious. After another skirmish, in which British torpedo bombers
scored one hit that killed a crew member but did minimal damage, the
Bismarck again slipped away. The British lost contact with the German
battleship on May 25.
The Bismarck was not spotted again until the next day. Naval groups
from the West and North set off in pursuit while more British warships
approached from the South. Late on May 26, repeated attacks by torpedo
bombers finally scored two hits on Bismarck, one hitting in the rear
and jamming the rudder. As a result, the Bismarck lost maneuverability
and sailed uncontrollably toward the British fleet. The next morning,
the British closed in.
The battleships Rodney and King George V opened fire at 0847 hours. The
Bismarck fired back, but, unable to maneuver, was an easy target.
Within half-an-hour, the Bismarck had suffered multiple direct hits
that had destroyed several turrets, taken out the fire control center,
and killed most of the senior officers. The British warships continued
to pound the Bismarck, which fired its last ineffective salvo at 0931.
With the once mighty battleship now little more than a floating hulk,
the surviving crew set scuttling charges. The British cruiser
Dorsetshire moved in and fired several torpedoes, which exploded at
about 1030. The Bismarck finally capsized and sank at about 1040 hours
on May 27, 1941. Only 115 sailors of a crew of over 2,000 survived.
In June, 1989, an expedition discovered the wreck of the Bismarck 600
miles off the coast of France in 15,000 feet of water.


Enterprise
----------
Launched: Sept., 1960
Displacement: Approx. 93,000 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 30+ knots
Length: Over 1,100 feet
Area of Flight Deck: 4.4+ Acres
Complement: Navy: Over 3,300; Air Wing: Over 2,500; Total: Over 5,800
Unit Type: Naval
Epoch: Atomic
Description: Many ships have proudly carried the Enterprise name,
which can be traced back to a British supply sloop that was captured
during the American Revolution. The seventh Enterprise (CV-6) was the
first aircraft carrier to bear the name and is famous for its role at
the battle of Midway and other naval engagements in the Pacific Theater
during World War II.
The eighth U.S.S. Enterprise (CVN-65) was the first nuclear powered
aircraft carrier. Like its predecessor, it has had a distinguished
career. In February, 1962, the carrier acted as a tracking station for
the flight of Friendship 7, the United States' first orbital space
flight piloted by Lieutenant Colonel John Glenn. In October, 1962, the
Enterprise participated in the naval blockade of Cuba during the Cuban
Missile Crisis. The Big E made six deployments to Southeast Asia from
1965 to 1972, becoming the first nuclear powered ship to engage in
combat. She was also the first carrier to deploy the F-14A "Tomcat"
and, in 1975, assisted with the evacuation of Saigon.
The Enterprise has undergone several refits, the most extensive of
which concluded in 1994. She is expected to remain in service well into
the 21st Century.


Henry Grace a Dieu
------------------
Launched: June, 1514
Displacement: Approx. 1,000 tons
Armament: Over 150 bronze and iron guns
Complement: 600-800 sailors and soldiers
Unit Type: Naval
Epoch: Imperial
Descriptions: Commissioned by and named after Henry VIII, the Henry
Grace a Dieu was the largest warship in the world when she was launched
in 1514. Records of her career are spotty, but she was involved in
several skirmishes with the French, which she survived. In 1553, she
accidentally caught fire and sank while mooring at Woolwich.


Leviathan
---------
Launched: 2048
Displacement: Approx. 40,000 tons (normal)
Max Speed: 37 knots (cruising), 41 knots (short burst)
Length: 656' 2"
Complement: 486
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: Rounding out the mid-21st Century redesign of NATO's
naval forces was the reincarnation of one of the previous century's
greatest warships: the battleship. Use of the battleship had declined
following WWII as aircraft carriers became the weapon of choice for the
world's navies. Despite a brief resurgence in the use of battleships by
the US at the end of the 20th Century, no new battleship designs had
been produced for 100 years until NATO's "Leviathan" program began in
2041. Destroyers had filled multiple offshore roles for over 40 years,
while aircraft carriers and long-range aircraft had provided the means
for aerial bombardment. NATO wanted to compliment these existing sea-
based combat capabilities with a well-protected and highly mobile
vessel armed with the latest high-energy weaponry, which would give it
both fantastic range and unprecedented firepower. The Leviathan Class
Battleship was the result. Its main guns were capable of firing a
contained plasma charge a distance of over 100 km (more than 60 miles).
The Leviathan's powerful laser canons consumed colossal amounts of
energy. Each of its four turrets had a dedicated fusion reactor, in
addition to the main reactor needed to run the ship. The reactors were
cross-connected to provide redundancy, allowing the guns to operate at
lower power should one of the reactors go offline. Additionally, the
reactors could be chained together to produce bursts of varying
intensity. Though theoretically capable of producing a single energy
burst of essentially unlimited power (given enough charging time), care
had to be taken to keep charges below a certain safety threshold. If
containment of a massive charge ever broke down it would cause a
devastating onboard explosion, possibly resulting in the loss of the
ship and its crew.
One of the most remarkable achievements of the Leviathan program was
the reduction of the crew size compared to earlier battleships. World
War II era battleships routinely went to sea with well over 2,000
crewmen. The Leviathan, with its automated systems and low maintenance
requirements, needed fewer than 500. The reduction in necessary crew
space, in addition to the miniaturization that many standard shipboard
systems and components had undergone over the previous half-century,
resulted in a vessel only 200 meters in length displacing 36,000 metric
tons. (Battleships this size had been at sea as far back as WWI.) This
gave the Leviathan a huge power-to-weight ratio and therefore
exceptional speed for a ship of its stature. It also provided the extra
benefit of presenting a smaller target to enemies.
The Leviathan was first used in combat in 2051 supporting a NATO action
to eliminate a clandestine terrorist installation discovered in
northern Africa.


Nematocyst Class Destroyer
--------------------------
Launched: 2039
Displacement: Approx. 8,500 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: Approx. 37 knots
Length: 464' 6"
Complement: 78
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: By the third decade of 21st Century, the nature of
warfare was changing. The development of high-energy weaponry was in
full swing and deployment of the first combat-ready lasers was close at
hand. At sea, fleet modernization was badly needed to both prepare for
and take advantage of this new class of weapons.
The expanded NATO alliance began programs to redesign all the major
categories of naval warships, starting with the destroyer. Every
charter member contributed parts and/or systems to the project, with
final assembly of the prototype vessel taking place in the UK. In April
2039, the first Nematocyst Class Destroyer was launched with great
fanfare. The name referred to its ability to deliver a lethal sting to
its targets. The Nematocyst's sea trials were nearly flawless and full
production of the destroyer began soon thereafter in both Great Britain
and the US.
The Nematocyst borrowed many proven design concepts from the DD 21
Zumwalt Class Destroyer, developed by the US 30 years earlier.
Communications, navigation, and the automation of basic shipboard
functions were adapted from the previous design with some significant
enhancements. Numerous stealth features were also incorporated,
including minimized radar, acoustic, heat, and magnetic signatures. The
biggest changes were made to the weapons, armor, and power system.
High-energy lasers replaced surface projectile and missile armaments. A
first-generation miniaturized fusion reactor provided the power needed
to charge the weapons and run the ship. The reactor also allowed the
Nematocyst to remain at sea indefinitely, coming into port only to
replenish supplies and exchange crew members. Continuing the 21st
Century trend of minimizing the complements of naval warships, the
Nematocyst carried a crew of only 78 men and women. Ample living and
work space helped to maximize quality of life while the vessel was at
sea.
Like its predecessors, the Nematocyst Destroyer played a multi-mission
role: protecting larger ships and battle groups, supporting troop
landings and deployments, and patrolling for hostile submarines. Over
350 Nematocyst Class Destroyers were produced from 2039 to 2057. Almost
all of the ships performed beyond expectations, with service lives in
excess of 35 years.


Trireme
-------
Launched: 5th Century BC
Displacement: Approx. 40 tons
Max Speed: 7+ knots
Length: 120 feet
Complement: Approx 200 plus a contingent of foot soldiers
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: Light yet sturdy and highly maneuverable, triremes ruled
the Mediterranean for most of the 5th Century BC. They were used
extensively by the navies of Persia, Phoenicia, and the Greek city-
states. Triremes had a square sail on a single mast, but the sail and
mast were stowed during battle in favor of the oars. Three rows of oars
on each side of the ship were manned by many as 170 oarsmen, depending
on the size of the vessel.
At the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC, the Greek Commander Themistocles
lured a much larger Persian fleet under King Xerxes into the straits
near the island of Salamis. The outnumbered Greek triremes proved much
more maneuverable than the Persian Galleys in the narrow straits.
Through ramming and boarding tactics, the Greeks manages to sink about
300 Persian ships while losing only about 40 triremes. The remainder of
the Persian fleet dispersed, delaying Xerxes planned invasion and
giving the Greeks time to prepare their defenses. This victory signaled
the beginning of the dominance of triremes, which lasted until the end
of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC.


U.S.S Warrington DD-843
-----------------------
Launched: Sept.1945
Displacement: Approx. 3,500 tons (fully loaded)
Max Speed: 35 knots
Length: 390' 6"
Complement: 22 Officers, 345 Enlisted
Unit Type: Naval
Descriptions: The Warrington (DD-843) was a Gearing Class Destroyer,
commissioned just after the end of WWII. It was the third US warship
given the name Warrington. Outfitted with surface guns, anti-aircraft
guns, torpedoes, and depth charges, the Warrington was a versatile and
formidable vessel capable of taking on many assignments.
She went through an extensive refit in 1961-62 and became a guided
missile destroyer used primarily in an anti-submarine role. The
Warrington was deployed during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where it fired
a warning shot to stop a Russian ship heading for Cuba. She was also on
hand after the atomic sub USS Thresher was tragically lost with all
hands in 1963. When on duty during the Vietnam War in 1972, the
Warrington struck a mine in the Tonkin Gulf under somewhat suspicious
circumstances. The ship was decommissioned and sold to Taiwan for
scrapping in 1973.


WW2 U-Boat
----------
Launched: 1936
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